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AnimalearnThe American Anti-Vivisection Society

Animal Dealers

Types of dealers:
Class A dealer: purpose-breeds animals
Class B dealer: purchases animals from other sources (inc. pounds) and resells
Random source dealer
Biological supply company
Any person who breeds, purchases, or otherwise acquires animals to sell for use in research, testing, or education is classified as a dealer under the AWA138. The AWA requires that dealers be licensed by the USDA as either Class A or Class B dealers. A USDA-licensed Class B dealer is defined as a person “whose business includes the purchase and/or resale of any animal139.” Class B dealers may also breed animals140. There are two types of Class B dealers that supply animals to education: those who obtain animals from random sources (Class B random source dealers) (See Appendix A. Tables 1. and 2.), and biological supply companies (See Appendix A. Table 3.). A USDA-licensed Class A dealer, on the other hand, breeds animals for sale to research and teaching facilities141.

In 1965, New York Congressman Joseph Y. Resnick introduced a federal bill in response to the story of Pepper, a Dalmatian who was stolen, sold to a research facility, and killed142. This incident and the Resnick bill, along with a 1966 Life Magazine exposé entitled “Concentration Camps for Dogs,” influenced the creation of the 1966 Laboratory Animal Welfare Act, now known as the AWA143. This was the first piece of federal legislation in the U.S. that established humane standards for the care, transport, and acquisition of animals used in research facilities (including the use of animals for teaching purposes at colleges and universities), and it also required the regulation of dealers who sold animals to such facilities144.

In 1990, the AWA was amended to define a five-day minimum holding period for animals in shelters or pounds who are to be sold to animal dealers145. It specifies that this time will allow them to be claimed or give them an opportunity to be adopted. The amendment also established record keeping requirements for dealers who obtain companion animals from these sources146 to help ensure that animals are obtained legitimately. The AWA also requires that the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the USDA, the federal agency that enforces the AWA, inspect facilities operated by these dealers147.

USDA advises citizens who have lost a dog to contact local animal dealers and research facilities.Though the biomedical community denies that cats and dogs are still being stolen for sale to research and teaching institutions148,149, Class B dealers continue to be fined by the USDA for violating the AWA by obtaining animals through deception150,151. Recognizing that lost or stolen companion animals are possibly being sold to research labs, USDA even advises citizens who have lost a dog to contact local animal dealers and research facilities152.

Animalearn’s investigation revealed that many animal dealers repeatedly commit additional serious violations of the AWA yet continue to sell large numbers of cats and dogs and profit from their inhumane actions. In this section, we describe in detail violations and unethical practices committed by Class B random source dealers, as well as several of the biological supply companies and Class A dealers, and list the universities that support these businesses.

Schools can benefit both animals and themselves by adopting effective alternatives to the use of animals in teaching, which are not only more humane but are less expensive than buying animals for the classroom153.

1. Class B Dealers – Random Source Class B dealers may only obtain random source dogs and cats from other licensed dealers or pounds and shelters154. There are currently ten USDA licensed Class B random source dealers155 (See Appendix A).

A Class B random source dealer may not sell or donate a random source dog or cat without providing the recipient the proper documentation156, which must be available for each animal to assure legal acquisition, including an assurance that the pound or person was notified that the dog or cat may be used in research or education157. At each inspection, four times per year, two trace-backs (i.e., following identification/acquisition records back to the animals’ original sources) are performed. USDA APHIS has been performing these trace-backs since 1993158.

USDA regulations also stipulate holding periods for random source animals to allow owners time to find their lost or stolen animals. Class B dealers are required to hold an animal obtained from a pound or shelter for 10 full days, not including the day of acquisition, before selling the animal159.

Class B random source dealers have been repeatedly cited for serious AWA violations.Class B dealers may sell these animals to entities such as biological supply companies (which sell live and dead animals to classrooms and laboratories, and which are also classified as Class B dealers under the AWA definition); blood supply companies/facilities that collect blood from animal colonies for veterinary medical use; and research, testing, and teaching laboratories.

Animals sold by Class B dealers are significantly less expensive to buy than the “purpose bred” animals bred and sold by Class A dealers160,161. However, according to the University of Michigan Medical School, “non-conditioned dogs [such as those obtained from random sources] often have an unknown health status; thus, no guarantees are provided for such animals162,163.”

Animalearn discovered that a number of schools are obtaining dogs and cats from Class B random source dealers. These dealers have enjoyed significant profits from the sale of these animals yet are repeatedly cited by the USDA for violating AWA requirements. Given their history of frequent AWA violations, the USDA inspects each of these dealers on a quarterly basis. Several of the dealers are obtaining dogs and cats from questionable sources, are housing them in dirty and dangerous conditions, or are failing to provide them with humane care.

Details about the Class B random source dealers, their violations, and the schools that purchase from them are provided below.

• Hodgins Kennels (Howell, Michigan)
Hodgins Kennels, operated by Fred R. Hodgins, is a USDA licensed Class B dealer that sells live dogs and cats and frozen cat cadavers obtained from random sources164. Fred Hodgins has been selling animals to labs since 1960, and he also sells dogs to another class B dealer165,166.

Cited for numerous AWA violations including failure to provide medical care, improper records, and unsafe housing.

Transported dogs more than 1,000 miles by truck.

Sold 1,882 live animals from 2005-2007, earning $742,128.
Hodgins also runs Great Lakes Biological as a site under its Class B license for Hodgins Kennels. Great Lakes Biological sells only frozen cat cadavers to NASCO, a biological supply company based in Wisconsin167,168.

The dogs sold by Hodgins are obtained through a network of several sources, including not just animal shelters but also other random source dealers such as Middle Fork Kennels (Salisbury, Missouri)169 and R&R Research (Howard City, Michigan)170, and dog bunchers (i.e. individuals who gather dogs and sell them collectively to random source dealers). Many of the dogs have been transferred several times between their original homes, shelters and/or dealers, and Hodgins.

The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor171, University of Minnesota, St. Paul172,173, and University of Florida, Gainesville have purchased live dogs from this dealer between 2004 and 2008. In order to deliver to the University of Florida the 92 dogs it purchased from November 2005 to January 2008 for use in veterinary medical training, the dogs had to travel by truck for over 1,000 miles from Michigan to Florida174. It is documented that dogs become extremely stressed during transport, which can lead to physiological changes and medical conditions that are detrimental to the animals’ welfare and which can confound their use in experiments175,176. In addition, many of the dogs were listed as being neutered, indicating that they likely were pets at one time. An invoice accompanying a shipment of conditioned177 dogs from Hodgins to the University of Florida shows that 22 dogs were sold for $320 each, plus $1,500 for delivery by truck178.

According to another invoice for 10 conditioned dogs sold for $350 each to the University of Minnesota, St. Paul179, one dog was found to have a microchip, indicating that s/he was someone’s pet, and the university was subsequently credited for $350180.

USDA APHIS officers inspected Hodgins Kennels eight times between November 1993 and November 1994 and cited it for numerous AWA violations related to failure to provide animals with medical care, recordkeeping, and unsanitary and unsafe animal housing, among others181,182. In 1996, an administrative law judge fined Hodgins for $16,000 and issued a cease and desist order for 61 AWA violations. Those penalties were eventually whittled down to 15 violations, a $325 fine, and a cease and desist order183. In 2006, commissioners in the Michigan counties of Gladwin and Jackson voted to stop county animal shelters from selling dogs to dealers, including Hodgins184. Hodgins had been “receiving” dogs from the Jackson County Animal Shelter for 30 years185.

Despite Hodgins Kennels’ consistent pattern of AWA violations, it continues to reap profits as colleges and universities continue to patronize this dealer. Between 2005 and 2007, Hodgins Kennels sold 1,882 live animals and 1,659 frozen animals and grossed a whopping $742,128186. In addition, Hodgins reported that Great Lakes Biologicals sold 37,730 frozen animal cadavers between 2005 and 2007 and grossed $246,256 for these sales.

• R&R Research (Howard City, Michigan)
Owned by Roberta and James Woudenberg, R&R Research has been a licensed USDA Class B animal dealer since 1969187. R&R Research sells cats and dogs originally obtained from other Class B random source animal dealers (such as Cheri-Hill Kennel & Supply in Stanwood, Michigan)188, and from random sources (such as local animal shelters)189. For example, R&R Research removed dead animals from the Montcalm County Animal Shelter and received saleable live animals as payment for this service190. Because of public outrage, however, the Montcalm County Board of Commissioners formed an ad hoc committee to review the shelter’s policies, and this committee voted to not renew its five-year contract with R&R191,192,193.

Cited for inhumane treatment and illegal acquisition of animals.

Sold 1,855 live animals from 2005-2007, earning $558,486.
As previously stated, R&R is a part of a network of Missouri- and Michigan-based animal dealers that have sold and transported at least 44 dogs over 1,000 miles to the University of Florida, Gainesville between November 2005 and January 2008. Several dogs sold or transported by Hodgins Kennels to the University of Florida had been acquired or held by R&R Research. Some dogs were shuffled among dealers before arriving at the University of Florida. One example is an adult male beagle who was released from Midland County Animal Control (Midland, MI) on May 20, 2005 to Cheri-Hill Kennel & Supply. Cheri-Hill then sold the beagle five months later to R&R Research, which then sold the dog to the University of Florida in November 2005194.

Between September 2004 and October 2008, R&R Research sold 94 dogs and four cats to University of Michigan, Ann Arbor for use in education. According to one invoice received through our FOIA request, R&R charged the University $140 for each “semi-conditioned”195 dog in a shipment of eight dogs in 2004. In addition, between 2005-2006, Michigan State University (East Lansing, MI) purchased 17 mixed breed dogs from R&R for use at its College of Veterinary Medicine. University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine and University of Minnesota, St. Paul196 also bought dogs from R&R.

In 2005, USDA cited R&R Research for AWA violations occurring between February 2004 and January 2005197. These violations relate to the procurement of 18 cats from Howard City (Michigan) Municipal Services, which was not USDA licensed or operating as a public animal pound or shelter, and the source of the cats was not stated in the records as required by the AWA198.

In 2005, a USDA Inspector found that a dog escaped from a building after jumping through an open window and was eventually found by a member of the public199. In November 2006, a USDA Inspector cited R&R Research for violating the AWA by transporting dogs chained inside a livestock trailer200,201. During a USDA inspection trace-back of animal records to their original sources in 2007, it was discovered that R&R Research had accepted two cats from a person who found them as strays202,203,204. Similarly, during a trace-back in 2008, it was found that R&R had obtained three dogs and one cat from three different people, none of whom had raised the animals on their premises205,206.

Despite treating animals inhumanely, obtaining animals through suspect means, and being cited for several AWA violations, R&R Research sold 1,855 animals between 2005 and 2007 and grossed $558,486 in sales.

• C&C Kennels (Wewoka, Oklahoma)
Operated by Henry Lee Cooper, C&C Kennels is a USDA licensed Class B dealer that sells live cats, dogs, and rabbits obtained from random sources. According to our investigation, several Oklahoma schools have purchased animals from C&C. For example, from 2005-2007, Oklahoma State University Laboratory Animal Resources Unit in Stillwater purchased 459 live dogs from C&C Kennels207. During these same years, the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center in Oklahoma City bought seven live dogs from C&C Kennels for use in education, and also purchased live kittens in 2006 and 2007. Invoices indicate that kittens were purchased for $100208 each, and dogs were purchased for $150-$200209,210,211.

Cited for violations including dangerous and unsanitary cages, failure to provide veterinary care, and falsified records and illegal acquisition of animals.

Sold 2,395 animals from 2004-2006, earning $280,000.

License suspended in 2006.
According to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) animal use protocols received through our FOIA request, once each year from 2007-2010 the University of Oklahoma’s College of Medicine Pediatrics Department planned to use four 10-12 week old kittens purchased from C&C Kennels to teach human neonatal intubation techniques to nursing and medical students. The kittens are not euthanized and are “recycled” for other procedures or experiments. However, the invoice states that the kittens received in 2007 were only eight weeks old upon delivery the day before the scheduled lab212,213.

In addition, IACUC protocols show that a doctor at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center used 85 live dogs (over a three year period) purchased from C&C Kennels to teach physicians how to place and remove a heart catheter using various guidance and mapping systems. The dogs were anesthetized before the training session and euthanized at the end. Their hearts were removed, preserved, and analyzed to assess the size of the lesions resulting from the training lab.

According to documents we received from the USDA through our FOIA request, from 2004-2007 Cooper/C&C Kennels was cited for multiple AWA violations214,215. These often-repeat violations relate to: dogs in danger of injury from structurally-unsound cages; inadequate pest prevention/control; rabbits kept in filthy cages; overcrowding of rabbit cages; dirty water containers; failure to maintain an adequate veterinary care program; dogs in apparent need of veterinary care (e.g., bloody diarrhea); keeping of unidentified animals; animals acquired from unidentified sources; excess animal waste in cages; dogs kept without access to shelter; and creation of false acquisition records, among others. On August 27, 2007, USDA filed an official complaint against Cooper regarding these AWA violations216. On August 26, 2008, Cooper’s license was suspended for five years217. However, until the license renewal date, May 19, 2009, the suspension applies only to Cooper’s acquisition of animals.

Despite all of this, C&C Kennel sold 2,395 animals from 2004-2006 and grossed an incredible $280,000 from these sales218.

• Mountain Top Kennels (Wallingford, Kentucky)
Owned by Perry and Crystal Foster, Mountain Top Kennels is a USDA-licensed Class B dealer that sells cats and dogs obtained from random sources. Purdue University has purchased hundreds of animals for teaching experiments from LBL Kennels, which gets most of its animals from Mountain Top Kennels.

Cited for multiple, repeat violations including dogs in visible need of veterinary care, improper records, and unsanitary cages.

Sold 2,300 animals from 2005-2007, earning $169,225.
According to the USDA inspection reports from 2005-2007 received through our FOIA request, Mountain Top Kennels was cited for multiple, often-repeat AWA violations, including: dogs visibly in need of veterinary care; animal food exposed to possible contamination; dogs and cats with frozen water bowls; excessive fecal waste in cat and dog cages; lack of written veterinary care program; dogs with collars that visibly were too tight; missing paperwork regarding the acquisition of 27 dogs; and dirty and unsanitary dog cages219.

Even though Mountain Top Kennels repeatedly violated the AWA, it sold over 2,300 animals between 2005 and 2007 and grossed $169,225 from these sales220.

• LBL Kennels (Reelsville, Indiana)
Operated by Mark and Penny Lynch, LBL Kennels is a USDA-licensed Class B dealer that breeds dogs and also sells dogs obtained from random sources such as local dog bunchers and other random source animal dealers, including Mountain Top Kennels in Wallingford, Kentucky and Middle Fork Kennels in Salisbury, Missouri221.

Cited for violations including illegal acquisition of animals, unsanitary cages, and a dog visibly infested with ticks.

Sold 3,055 animals from 2005-2007, earning $738,000.
One school that has purchased dogs repeatedly from LBL Kennels is Purdue University. Between 2005-2007, Purdue purchased 335 dogs from LBL for use in education, and 218 of them were obtained directly from Mountain Top Kennels, another Class B random source dealer that has a history of AWA violations222.

According to USDA reports we received through our FOIA request, LBL Kennels was cited by the USDA in 2007 for several AWA violations, including: the purchase of over 25 dogs from two unlicensed individuals; rusty and unsanitary dog cages; unsanitary dog food and water bowls; and a dog visibly infested with ticks223.

Although dogs held by LBL Kennels were inhumanely treated and illegally acquired, it sold 3,055 animals between 2005 and 2007 and grossed $738,000 from these sales224.

• Robert Perry (Mt. Sterling, Ohio)
Cited for violations including improper documentation and inadequate veterinary care.

Sold 938 animals from 2005-2007, earning $241,314.
Robert Perry is a USDA-licensed Class B dealer who sells cats, dogs, and other animals obtained from random sources. From 2005-2007, The Ohio State University (OSU) purchased 136 dogs and cats from Perry for use in education225. Most, if not all, of these animals were euthanized at OSU.

In 2006, USDA cited Robert Perry for multiple AWA violations occurring between August 2004 and March 2005226. These violations relate to his failure on 44 occasions to get proper and complete certification from animal dealers who sold animals to him, in order to demonstrate that the animals were legally obtained. Perry was also cited for an inadequate veterinary care program. Perry was offered to settle the matter by paying a $200 penalty227.

Despite the AWA violations, Robert Perry sold 938 cats and dogs from 2005-2007, resulting in $241,314 in gross profits228.

• Cheri-Hill Kennel & Supply (Stanwood, Michigan)
One dog spent nearly a year at the dealer, before being transported over 1,000 miles by truck.

Sold 1,056 animals from 2005-2007, earning $77,800.
Cheri-Hill Kennel & Supply is a USDA-licensed Class B dealer that sells live dogs obtained from random sources, including pounds. For example, Cheri-Hill Kennel & Supply has an agreement with the Osceola County shelter in Reed City, Michigan through which it disposes of animals euthanized at the shelter in exchange for live shelter animals, who can be sold to research and teaching facilities229. The University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine has purchased live dogs from Cheri-Hill.

Cheri-Hill also obtains live dogs from local animal control pounds and subsequently sells or otherwise transfers the dogs to R&R Research (described above as an ongoing AWA violator). In some cases, dogs obtained from animal control facilities spend an extraordinary amount of time at Cheri-Hill. One example is an adult male pitbull-hound mix who was released from Mecosta County Animal Control (Big Rapids, MI) to Cheri-Hill on January 11, 2007230. Almost one year later, on December 31, 2007, the dog was sold/transferred to R&R Research (described above) and sold to the University of Florida, where he arrived on January 10, 2008 after being driven over 1,000 miles in a truck.

Between 2005 and 2007, Cheri-Hill Kennel and Supply sold 1,056 animals and grossed over $77,800231.

• Triple C Farms (St. Joseph, Illinois)
Numerous violations including illegal acquisition of animals and inadequate veterinary records.Triple C Farms was a USDA licensed Class B dealer that sold dogs obtained from random sources232. Between 2005-2006, the University of Illinois-Chicago purchased 12 dogs from Triple C Farms.

According to documents received from the USDA through our FOIA request, in 2005 Triple C Farms was inspected and cited by a USDA Veterinary Medical Officer for purchasing dogs from unlicensed sellers, in violation of AWA regulations233. It was also cited in 2005 for inadequate veterinary records and structural damage near dog cages that was potentially hazardous to the dogs234.

Despite these AWA violations, Triple C Farms sold over 600 animals, resulting in $210,148 in gross sales235.

Conclusion As shown, there are a number of schools that purchase live dogs and cats from Class B random source dealers that repeatedly violate humane care standards under the AWA or obtain animals from illegal sources. Additionally, in several cases, animals originally obtained from animal shelters are being held for a significant period of time at dealer facilities and shipped out of state, sometimes over 1,000 miles away. Studies show that such dogs obtained from random sources can harbor infections and suffer stress during transport, which are significant animal welfare concerns as well as confounding factors that can negatively affect experiments. Rather than supporting these dubious dealers, these schools should invest in humane and effective alternatives.

2. Class B Dealers – Biological Supply Companies Colleges and universities often purchase dead cats and dogs, called specimens or cadavers236, from biological supply companies. Biological supply companies make up a multi-million dollar industry that profits from the sale of live animals for classroom vivisection, as well as animal cadavers, including those of companion animals, for the purpose of classroom dissection (See Appendix A). Dog and cat cadavers can be purchased for $2 to $3 from an animal shelter237, and sold for $95.00 to a college or university238,239.

Greed can result in animals being euthanized and sold to biological supply companies instead of being offered for adoption.Biological supply companies provide materials for science courses at the K-12, college, veterinary, and medical level240. For example, biological supply companies offer cats for dissection who have been triple injected with colored latex and can come either skinned or not skinned. Another option is to order a cat who is pregnant and has been injected with color-coded latex (For alternatives to cat dissection, see Appendix B).

USDA regulates the companies that supply these cadavers to colleges and universities as Class B dealers (See Appendix A). Many of these companies get their animals from other Class B dealers, including random source dealers241, and often have contracts with pounds and shelters to obtain dog and cat cadavers, which they in turn sell at a profit to colleges and universities. In addition, according to Wayne Carley, Executive Director of the National Association of Biology Teachers Association, cats also come from shelters or dealers in Mexico242.

In this section, we present our findings on the schools that are purchasing cats and dogs from biological supply companies for teaching purposes, and examine the potential for abuse and misconduct when shelter animals are made available to biological supply companies. Our findings show that greed can result in animals being euthanized and sold to these companies instead of being offered for adoption. The problem is not restricted to the U.S. U.S. biological supply companies also exploit the poverty of Mexico to obtain a cheap source of dog and cat cadavers.

Given the corrupt and inhumane practices associated with some biological supply companies, there are no justifiable reasons for schools to buy animals from biological supply companies. For example, innovative humane alternatives to traditional animal dissections are available to provide life science students a realistic understanding of anatomy and physiology, and even to improve student learning and performance. (See Appendix B).

a. Universities Acquiring Animals from Biological Supply Companies
Animalearn surveyed biology departments from 150 colleges and universities regarding their use of dog and cat cadavers and received a response rate of 20%. At least 63% of the biology departments responding to the survey indicate that they use companion animal cadavers to teach anatomy and/or physiology243.

IACUC records indicate that various universities purchase companion animal cadavers from biological supply companies (See Appendix A. Table 3.). Some of these universities include Texas A&M College Station244; Texas A&M Kingsville; Bemidji State University (MN)245; California State University Bakersfield246; California State University-Dominguez Hills247; California State University-Fresno248; Colorado State University-Pueblo249; Grand Valley State University (MI)250; Minnesota State University251; Sonoma State University252; University of North Carolina- Charlotte253; University of North Carolina- Pembroke; University of Texas Pan Am254; and University of Illinois Champaign/Urbana2455, Grambling State University (LA)256, New Mexico State University257, and University of Louisiana-Monroe258.

b. Sargeant’s Wholesale Biological (Bakersfield, California)
Sargeant’s Wholesale Biological, one of the biological supply companies selling animal cadavers to colleges and universities, faces allegations of bribery and animal cruelty. The owner, Michael Sargeant, along with two shelter employees from Tulare County Animal Control Shelter, are accused of participating in an off-the-books arrangement to provide Sargent with cadavers in exchange for compensation. They face a combined total of 13 felony counts.

The owner of Sargeant’s Wholesale Biological allegedly bribed shelter employees to sell him animals instead of making them available for adoption. The three individuals allegedly carried out unauthorized “mass euthanasias, reportedly using nonstandard and painful methods, by falsifying records to cover their actions259.” Other allegations include beating shelter dogs, providing insufficient food, denying water in hot weather, and euthanizing companion animals before making them available for adoption260.

One of the shelter employees, ex-Shelter Manager William Harmon, was convicted September 24, 2008 on two felony counts of accepting bribes, a felony count of embezzlement, and a misdemeanor charge of accepting unlawful gratuity, all related to his actions performed while managing the Tulare County Animal Control Shelter. The jury found that on three separate occasions, Harmon provided Sargeant with euthanized dogs from the shelter in exchange for restaurant gift certificates, which he requested and accepted.

In court records, a shelter worker indicated that Sargeant preferred 30-50 pound pregnant or unsterilized dogs261. The shelter had had a contract with Sargeant, allowing him to purchase cat carcasses for $3 from the shelter, but the contract expired in 2002 and was not renewed, nor did he have a contract to take canine carcasses, yet he allegedly continued to obtain carcasses until 2006. Sargeant has pleaded not guilty. The shelter is no longer working with Sargeant’s Wholesale Biological262.

Sargeant’s Wholesale Biological acquires the companion animal cadavers it sells from a variety of other shelters, including one in Oklahoma City263,264 whose recent one-year contract265 for cat carcasses netted $8,750 in revenue, at $2.50 per carcass266; and one in San Antonio, whose one-year contract267 allowed Sargeant’s to buy carcasses at the rate of $2.50268 or $5.00269 per animal.

Although the owner of Sargeant’s Wholesale Biological has been charged with bribery and is connected to animal cruelty, his company continues to sell animal carcasses to schools, colleges, and universities. Many universities have bought cadavers from Sargeant’s, and Sargeant’s remains an approved vendor for several well-respected educational institutions, such as the University of Pennsylvania270 and Michigan State University. Additionally, Texas A&M University272 and California State University-Bakersfield have purchased cat carcasses from Sargeant’s273, and University of Georgia274 has purchased pregnant dog cadavers.

c. Ranaco/Delta Biological (Tucson, Arizona)
Ranaco, a biological supply company doing business as Delta Biological, obtains already-euthanized cats from shelters in the United States and Mexico275. Ranaco is also a source of cadavers for other biological supply companies, such as Sargent-Welch276, located in Buffalo, New York. Records show that California State University-Fresno purchases 70 preserved cats per year from Delta Biological.

Ranaco obtains cats from Mexico for sale in the U.S.The practice of obtaining cats from Mexico for sale in the United States is questionable as there are concerns that animals suffer inhumane treatment while in Mexican pounds277,278, and there are often insufficient resources and organizations dedicated to the enforcement of laws protecting animals, as well as uneven application of such humane welfare laws to ensure that dogs and cats are given the most humane treatment in pounds279.

Additionally, humane standards and policies regarding holding periods, euthanasia methods, and procurement practices of cats in Mexico can range considerably. Pounds in Mexico are required to hold dogs and cats for only 72 hours, less than the requirement for pounds in the United States that relinquish animals to dealers280, and the quality of housing conditions and care for some of these animals can be considered inhumane281. According to Norma Oficial Mexicana, official standards and regulations in Mexico, acceptable euthanasia methods include lethal injection for cats and dogs as well as electrocution for dogs and puppies over four months old282,283,284,285. Equipment used to electrocute dogs can be makeshift, outdated, and slow, and though federal law states that animals must be unconscious or sedated before being electrocuted, it is rarely enforced286.

Encouraging the exchange of an animal’s life for money or food is a questionable practice, particularly in a country where escaping poverty is a challenge. In the Mexican state of Puebla, for example, there was a program that offered 5,000 food packets to anyone who turned in an ownerless dog to be exterminated287,288. This program was established because there were not enough funds to neuter or vaccinate homeless dogs. However, following the launch of the program, there was concern about its potential to encourage people to steal animals or raise puppies specifically to be killed289.

Animals from Mexican pounds are also sold to companies that supply animals for educational purposes. A director290 of a pound in Zapopan, Mexico291 resigned from his post following a suspension based on allegations that he used freezers from Pamesa292, a private company whose dealings with animals is for academic use. Allegedly, the freezers were used to store frozen cats, without a contract, in exchange for furniture for the pound293,294. Pamesa also contracted with The Center for Animal Control, a pound in Guadalajara, Mexico, who sent 30 to 40 cats monthly to the company295. Clearly, animals from Mexican pounds are being used in education. According to a Mexican news report, some animal cadavers from city pounds end up “at American schools for their study296.”

d. Carolina Biological Supply (Burlington, North Carolina)
Carolina Biological Supply (Carolina) sells both living animals and preserved animal cadavers, including dog and cat cadavers, to schools, colleges, and universities (See Appendix A). Carolina has had contracts to purchase cat cadavers from pounds and shelters from various states, including Iredell County Animal Services297 and Alamance County Animal Control, both in North Carolina298. This is concerning because both pounds use the gas chamber, which can take up to 25 minutes299 to kill an animal, resulting in a slow death300,301,302.

According to Animalearn’s records, colleges and universities that obtain cat cadavers from Carolina Biological Supply include California State University-Dominguez Hills; California State University- San Bernardino; Sonoma State University (CA); University of Illinois- Urbana-Champaign; Grambling State University (LA); Minnesota State University; Bemidji State University (MN); University of North Carolina- Pembroke; and Texas A&M-Kingsville.

Conclusion There is considerable profit to be made in the biological supply industry. Ethical questions are raised, however, when money is exchanged for companion animal carcasses, including whether there is a profit motive for pounds or shelters to euthanize rather than adopt out animals who can be sold to biological supply companies303. This concern is amplified when biological supply companies go to Mexican shelters and pounds for animal carcasses, particularly since standards for humane treatment are already questionable.

3. Class A Dealers Several Class A dealers have violated the AWA numerous times.Educational institutions also purchase animals from USDA-licensed Class A dealers, those that meet the definition of dealer and breed animals for sale304. Our investigation revealed numerous AWA violations at several Class A dealers that provide dogs and cats to universities for teaching purposes. Details about Class A dealers, their violations, and the schools that purchase from them are provided below.

• Marshall Farms Group Ltd. (North Rose, New York)
Marshall Farms Group Ltd. is a USDA-licensed Class A animal dealer that breeds animals for sale, including beagles, ferrets, minipigs, and mongrels/hounds for research, testing, and teaching purposes. It also sells blood, plasma, serum, and tissue derived from animals on site and will perform medical diagnostic procedures (e.g., blood work, echocardiograms, eye exams) on animals before shipping them305.

Investigators found numerous violations, including accumulation of urine in cages, a semi-conscious and shaking newborn puppy, and a dehydrated puppy who had to be euthanized.

Sold 456,227 animals from 2005-2007, earning an undisclosed amount over $200,000.
Animalearn found that, between 2005-2007, Colorado State University, Fort Collins306, University of Cincinnati307, University of Texas Southwest Medical Center (Dallas)308, University of Washington (Seattle)309, and University of Wisconsin, Madison310 purchased live mixed breed dogs for use in education from Marshall Farms. Oklahoma State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine311 also bought live beagles from Marshall Farms312.

The USDA inspection reports we obtained for 2005-2007 indicate that Marshall Farms had several violations of the AWA. In March 2005, Marshall Farms was found to have unsanitary animal cages, including over-accumulation of dog hair and urine around dogs in cages, strong smell of ammonia (caused by urine) in a building housing dogs, and excessive amounts of urine stains and fecal accumulation under rabbits’ cages313.

In February 2006, a USDA inspector found numerous AWA violations resulting from inadequate veterinary care and daily health monitoring that are cause for serious concern, including: a dead puppy kept in a refrigerator used to store drugs; and several dogs with obvious injuries and medical conditions (some of whom had blood in or around their cages), including a semi-conscious and shaking newborn puppy and a dehydrated puppy who had to be euthanized314. The inspector also found dogs kept daily in dark cages; damaged and dirty cages that posed a risk of injury to the dogs; dogs grouped with incompatible dogs (exposing them to injury); and dead and decomposing wild mice in several buildings.

In March 2006, the Inspector found that puppies were being euthanized and necropsied in a medical building in front of hospitalized puppies, potentially causing them distress315. During an inspection in September 2006, an excessive fly infestation in some buildings, including the treatment/necropsy area, was also noted316. In 2007, three young dogs were found with their bodies and their cages covered in blood after having their nails trimmed317. Three other dogs were found with their cage door left open, and loose ferrets were observed both inside and outside buildings.

Despite the inhumane treatment of animals represented by these numerous, serious AWA violations, between 2005-2007 Marshall Farms Group Ltd. sold 456,227 animals, grossing over $600,000318.

• Covance Research Products Inc. (Denver, Pennsylvania)
Covance Inc., headquartered in Princeton, New Jersey, is one of the largest drug development and testing companies worldwide. Its subsidiary, Covance Research Products, Inc., also breeds and sells dogs, rabbits, and macaque monkeys to research, testing, and teaching laboratories. Covance Research Products is a USDA-licensed Class A breeder (based in Denver, Pennsylvania with sites in other states such as Michigan and Virginia)319 and also a Class B dealer (based in Alice, Texas320).

Breeds and sells dogs, rabbits, and macaque monkeys.

Sold 240,867 animals from 2004-2006, earning nearly $50 million.
We found that Covance Research Products sells and donates live dogs to a number of universities. One of the biggest purchasers of dogs from Covance Research Products is University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, which bought a total of 354 dogs from Covance from 2004-2006321. Other universities receiving dogs from Covance Research Products include: Michigan State University, East Lansing322; University of Wisconsin, Madison323; University of Cincinnati (Ohio)324; University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine325; University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill326; University of Minnesota, St. Paul327; and University of Texas Southwest Medical Center (Dallas)328. It should be noted that the University of Minnesota returned two hounds to Covance: one 10 month-old was considered to be underweight and one month too young, and one nine month-old was considered underage by two months329.

According to the USDA inspection reports we obtained, over a two-week period in August 2006, Covance Research Products staff allowed temperatures in dog housing facilities to rise above 90 degrees Fahrenheit330,331. Covance Laboratories, Inc., which is located at a different location(s) and operates as a USDA-registered research facility, has also been cited and fined for USDA violations recently332,333.

Covance Research Products reported to USDA that it sold 240,867 animals from 2004-2006 and grossed an astounding amount of nearly $50 million from those sales334.

• Ridglan Farms, Inc. (Mount Horeb, Wisconsin)
Ridglan Farms, Inc. is a USDA-licensed Class A dealer that breeds dogs for sale to research and educational institutions and operates a contract animal cremation service (through which it sends animals offsite to a crematorium).

Cited for dirty and dangerous housing conditions.

Sold 11,404 animals from 2005-2007, earning more than $7 million.
Animalearn found that one of the largest purchasers of dogs from Ridglan Farms is the University of Wisconsin, Madison, which bought 445 live beagles between 2005 and 2007. Oklahoma State University335; Texas A&M University336; University of Minnesota, St. Paul337; and University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill338 also purchased live beagles from Ridglan.

According to the USDA inspection reports we obtained, Ridglan was investigated following a complaint of overcrowded and unsanitary dog cages and the smell of burning animals. A USDA inspector visited the site and did not consider the complaint to be valid. He/she noted that there were 2,000 dogs on the premises at the time of inspection. In 2006, however, federal inspectors did document dirty and potentially dangerous animal housing conditions at Ridglan Farms, Inc. According to pedigree records obtained from USDA, Ridglan gives names primarily to the male dogs (sires) and assigns codes to the females (dams). Such male names include: Barney, Bingo, Fritz, Frekls, Kane, Killer, Twit, and Tramp.

Despite these dirty and dangerous housing conditions, from 2005 to 2007, Ridglan Farms, Inc. sold 11,404 animals and grossed an incredible $7,028,665 in sales.

• Harlan Sprague Dawley (Indianapolis, Indiana)
Harlan Sprague Dawley is one of the world’s largest companies that breeds and sells animals such as cats, dogs, ferrets, rabbits, rodents, and nonhuman primates to laboratories. It also conducts animal testing and clinical trials and sells diets created for animals in labs. Harlan is known for its large-scale breeding of various mice and rats (e.g. inbred, mutant, etc.), in particular the albino “Sprague-Dawley rat.”

Breeds and sells cats, dogs, ferrets, rabbits, rodents, and nonhuman primates.

Transported cats and kittens over 1,000 miles by truck.
We found that several universities buy live cats and dogs from Harlan, including University of Cincinnati (Ohio)339; University of Connecticut, Storrs340; University of Florida, Gainesville341; University of Minnesota, St. Paul342; University of Washington, Seattle343; University of Wisconsin, Madison344; and Colorado State University, Fort Collins345.

Based upon animal sales records received through FOIA from various universities, all of the cats and kittens were transported to these schools by truck from Wisconsin to Colorado, Florida, Minnesota, and Ohio. Some of these destinations are over 1,000 miles apart. These are considerably long and stressful journeys for cats and kittens346,347.

Harlan Sprague Dawley did not report the total number of animals sold but reported to the USDA income from animal sales totaling over $300,000 from 2005-2007348.

Conclusion Based upon our review of a number of Class A dealers, it is clear that these dealers enjoy significant profits from the breeding and sale of cats, dogs, and other animals. Some of these dealers play a major role in the industry of supplying animals for research and education yet have been cited for violations of basic animal welfare regulations. By incorporating humane and effective alternatives to the use of animals bred for education and research, which will be discussed in more detail in Section IV and Appendix B, universities will benefit by cutting both financial and ethical costs.

138USDA defines “dealer” as “any person who, in commerce, for compensation or profit, delivers for transportation, or transports, except as a carrier, buys, or sells, or negotiates the purchase or sale of: Any dog or other animal whether alive or dead (including unborn animals, organs, limbs, blood, serum, or other parts) for research, teaching, testing, experimentation, exhibition, or for use as a pet….” 9 C.F.R. § 1.1.
139USDA defines “Class B licensee” as “brokers, and operators of an auction sale, as such individuals negotiate or arrange for the purchase, sale, or transport of animals in commerce. Such individuals do not usually take actual physical possession or control of the animals, and do not usually hold animals in any facilities. A class ‘B’ licensee may also exhibit animals as a minor part of the business.” Id.
140United States Department of Agriculture. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Animal Care. “Licensing Requirements (Section 3.3)” Animal Care Resource Guide: Dealer Inspection Guide Apr 2000. APHIS. 15 Sep. 2008. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/downloads/manuals/dealer/requirements.pdf.
141USDA defines “Class A licensee” as a person “whose business involving animals consists only of animals that are bred and raised on the premises in a closed or stable colony and those animals acquired for the sole purpose of maintaining or enhancing the breeding colony.” Id.
142Orlans, F. Barbara, et al. “Where Should Research Scientists Get Their Dogs?” The Human Use of Animals: Case Studies in Ethical Choice. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. 289-304.
143Id.
144Laboratory Animal Welfare Act. Pub. L. 89-544. 24 August 1966. 29 Sep 2008. http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/legislat/pl89544.htm.
145Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990. Pub. L. 101-624, Section 2503. 28 Nov 1990. NAL. 18 Aug 2008. http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/legislat/pl101624.htm; 7 U.S.C. § 2158 (a).
146Id. § 2058 (b).
147United States Department of Agriculture. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. “Animal Welfare: Final Rules (9CFR Parts 1 and 2).” Federal Register, 31 Aug 1989: 36112-36163. NAL. 18 Aug 2008. http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/legislat/awafin.htm.
148Michigan Society for Medical Research. “The Use of Pound Animals in Biomedical Research.” Factsheet. Undated. mismr.org. 29 Sep 2008. http://www.mismr.org/educational/pound.html.
149Reitman, Judith. “From the Leash to the Laboratory.” The Atlantic Monthly 286(Jul 2000):17-21. The Atlantic Monthly 15 Sep 2008. http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/2000/07/reitman.htm.
150Id.
151See, e.g., United States Department of Agriculture. “Iowa Animal Dealer Faces USDA Animal Welfare Charges.” Press Release. 3 Jan 2001. APHIS. 18 Aug 2008. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/news/2001/01/SHONKA.HTM.
152United States Department of Agriculture. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Animal Care. “Safeguarding Pets.” Fact Sheet. Sep 1997. APHIS. 18 Aug 2008. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/publications/animal_welfare/content/printable_version/fs_awsafepet.pdf.
153“Cost Comparison Sheet.” Animalearn. http://animalearn.org/resources01.php.
1549 C.F.R. § 1.1. (defining random source as “dogs and cats obtained from animal pounds or shelters, auction sales, or from any person who did not breed and raise them on his or her premises”) 9 C.F.R § 2.132 (a).
155See Appendix A.
156Id. § 2158 (b)(2).
157Id. Documents shall allow individuals to trace the animal’s origin.
158United States. Department of Agriculture. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Animal Care. “Animal Care Annual Report of Activities: Fiscal Year 2007.” Sep 2008. APHIS. 3 Dec 2008. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/publications/animal_welfare/content/printable_version/2007_AC_Report.pdf. This contrasts with the over 9,000 regulated facilities that are inspected at least once a year (for research facilities) or as determined by the USDA’s risk-based system (all other facilities). See Id.
1599 C.F.R. §2.101 2005. APHIS. 3 Dec 2008. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/downloads/awr/9cfr2.101.txt.
160Michigan Society for Medical Research. “The Use of Pound Animals in Biomedical Research.” Factsheet. Undated. mismr.org. 29 Sep 2008. http://www.mismr.org/educational/pound.html.
161Orlans, F. Barbara et al. “Where Should Research Scientists Get Their Dogs?” The Human Use of Animals: Case Studies in Ethical Choice. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. 289-304.
162Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor. “Canine Receiving, Quarantine, and Conditioning Protocol.” Undated. UMMS. 3 Sep 2008 www.ulam.umich.edu/sops/Quarantine%20Dog%208-05.pdf.
163Also see similar concerns about the use of animals obtained through pound seizure. Supra pg. 19.
164Hodgins Kennels also operates as a boarding kennel/pet sitting service. See: yp.yahoo.com “Fred R. Hodgins Kennel.” 17 Nov 2008. http://yp.yahoo.com Path: Other Professional Services > Animals and Pets > Pet Sitting Services.
165Drayer, Mary Ellen, ed. The Animal Dealers: Evidence of Abuse of Animals in the Commercial Trade 1952-1997. Washington, DC: Animal Welfare Institute, 1997.
166Jackson County Board of Commissioners Meeting Minutes. 7 Jun 2004. Jackson County. 23 Aug 2008. http://www.co.jackson.mi.us/comm/minutes/AG/6-7-04.asp.
167Hodgins, Janice. Phone Call/Inquiry. 11 Dec 2008.
168See Appendix A
169Middle Fork Kennels appears to be defunct. It was owned by the same dealers now operating under USDA Class B dealer license 43-B3631 (Tony and Becky Schachtele, doing business as Schachtele Auction Service (Keytesville, Missouri)).
170See infra pg. 26.
171Between 2004 and 2007, the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor purchased four live cats and seven live dogs from Hodgins Kennels for use in teaching protocols.
172Between 2005 and 2006, University of Minnesota, St. Paul purchased 30 dogs from Hodgins Kennels.
173Some of whom were rejected or returned for unknown reasons.
174Based upon USDA documents received through FOIA, these dogs were driven in a truck along with 44 dogs purchased from R&R Research in Howard City, MI. (Also see the section of R&R Research below.)
175Meunier, LaVonne, D. “Selection, Acclimation, Training, and Preparation of Dogs for the Research Setting.” ILAR Journal 47(4)(2006):326-347.
176Swallow, Jeremy, et al. “Guidance on the transport of laboratory animals: Report of the Transport Working Group established by the Laboratory Animal Science Association (LASA).” Laboratory Animals 39 (2005):1-39.
178Conditioned dogs are those who have been held for at least 30 days, vaccinated, and treated for internal and external parasites. (See: Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor. “Canine Receiving, Quarantine, and Conditioning Protocol.” Undated. University of Michigan. 3 September 2008.)
179Hodgins Kennels, Inc. Invoice #4116. 14 Dec 2007.
180Hodgins Kennels, Inc. Invoice #3545. 17 Aug 2005.
181Id.
182Hodgins. v. USDA, 33 Fed. Appx. 784, WL 649102(6th Cir., 2002)) available at http://www.usda.gov/da/oaljdecisions/vol61/Vol61_at_19.htm.
183For information on AWA violations from 1988-1994, see: Drayer, Mary Ellen, ed. The Animal Dealers: Evidence of Abuse of Animals in the Commercial Trade 1952-1997. Washington, DC: Animal Welfare Institute, 1997.
184Anonymous. “Jackson County Stops Selling Pound Animals to Labs.” Animal People News Sep 2006. Animal People News 23 Aug 2008. http://www.animalpeoplenews.org/06/09/tsg.jacksoncounty09.06.htm.
185Jackson County Board of Commissioners Meeting Minutes. 7 Jun 2004. Jackson County. 23 Aug 2008. http://www.co.jackson.mi.us/comm/minutes/AG/6-7-04.asp.
186Information obtained from this dealer’s USDA APHIS Class B Dealer License Renewal Applications for the years 2006-2008.
187Drayer, Mary Ellen, ed. The Animal Dealers: Evidence of Abuse of Animals in the Commercial Trade 1952-1997. Washington, DC: Animal Welfare Institute, 1997.
188See supra pg. 29 Information obtained from several records of animal sales by R&R Research.
189These Michigan-based random sources include Gratiot County Animal Control in Ithaca, Mecosta County Animal Control in Big Rapids, Midland County Animal Control in Midland, and Montcalm County Animal Control in Stanton.
190Ogg, Aaron. “Montcalm County studies its contract with animal research supplier; takes heat from community.” The Grand Rapids Press 26 Jan 2009. Mlive.com. 28 Jan 2009. http://www.mlive.com/news/grandrapids/index.ssf/2009/01/montcalm_county_studies_its_co.html.
191Jeltema, Ryan. “Animal shelter panel to meet today.” The Daily News 5 Feb 2009. The Daily News 6 Feb 2009. http://www.thedailynews.cc/print.asp?ArticleID=25088&SectionID=28SubSectionID=11.
192Jeltema, Ryan. “Panel Recommends to End R&R Research Deal.” The Daily News 26 Mar 2009 The Daily News 29 Mar 2009. http://www.thedailynews.cc/main.asp?SectionID=2&SubSectionID=2&ArticleID=26226.
193The Montcalm County Board of Commissioners will review the decision on April 27, 2009.
194Dog ID/USDA Number E5404.
195According to the R&R Research “Protocol for Conditioned Canines” accompanying animal records in the results of our FOIA request, dogs with a ‘semi-conditioned’ status can include those who have tested positive for heartworms.
196Some of whom were rejected or returned for unknown reasons.
197USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Investigative and Enforcement Services. Letter (and attachments) to R&R Research. 2 Aug 2005.
198See 9 C.F.R. § 2.75(a)(i)(iii); § 2.132(a)(2)(b)(d);§ 2.133(b)(4)(6).
199USDA APHIS Inspection Report. 18 Nov 2005.
200Dogs and cats must be contained in an individual enclosure during transport. 9 C.F.R. § 3.14(a).
201USDA APHIS Inspection Report. 7 Nov 2006.
202No dealer shall obtain animals from a person who did not breed or raise them on their premises. 9 C.F.R. § 2.132(d).
203USDA APHIS Inspection Report. 19 Sep 2007.
204For information about R&R Research’s AWA violations in the 1980s and 1990s, see: Drayer, Mary Ellen, ed. The Animal Dealers: Evidence of Abuse of Animals in the Commercial Trade 1952-1997. Washington, DC: Animal Welfare Institute, 1997.
205See supra note 154.
206USDA APHIS Inspection Report 14 Nov 2008.
207Unlike other schools responding to our request, OSU does not categorize animals based on their intended use (i.e., education, research, testing).
208OUHSC Purchase Requisition Inquiry-Requisition Inquiry for Approval. Requisition ID Number 44040. 9 May 2007.
209OUHSC Purchase Requisition. Requisition ID Number 40743. 16 May 2006.
210OUHSC Purchase Requisition. Requisition ID Number 41577. 19 Jul 2006.
211C&C Kennels Invoice Number 02598. 24 Jul 2006.
212See supra note 208.
213Several medical organizations recommend use of human mannequins over the use of live animals, see Appendix B1, Section 3.
214USDA APHIS Inspection Reports dated: 27 Jul 2005; 26 Oct 2006; 15 Nov 2006; 13 Mar 2007; 25 Jun 2007; and 24 Oct 2007.
215United States Department of Agriculture. Complaint against Henry Lee Cooper (Respondent). AWA Docket No. 07-0181. 27 Aug 2007.
216Id.
217United States Department of Agriculture. Consent Decision and Order regarding Henry Lee Cooper (Respondent). AWA Docket No. 07-0181. 26 Aug 2008. USDA. 16 Dec 2008. www.usda.gov/da/oaljdecisions/AWA-07-0181_080827.pdf.
218Information obtained from this dealer’s USDA APHIS Class B Dealer License Renewal Applications for the years 2006-2008.
219USDA APHIS Inspection Reports: 21 Mar 2006; 6 Jun 2006; 18 Oct 2006; 2 Jul 2007; 1 Aug 2007; 25 Oct 2007, and 30 Oct 2007.
220Information obtained from this dealer’s USDA APHIS Class B Dealer License Renewal Applications for the years 2004-2006.
221Middle Fork Kennels appears to be defunct. It was owned by the same dealers now operating under USDA Class B dealer license 43-B-3631 (Tony and Becky Schachtele, doing business as Schachtele Auction Service (Keytesville, Missouri)).
222See Mountain Top Kennels. Infra. pg. 28.
223USDA APHIS Inspection Report, 26 Sep 2007.
224Information obtained from this dealer’s USDA APHIS Class B Dealer License Renewal Applications for the years 2006-2008.
225See Protect Our Earth’s Treasures (POET) website listing The Ohio State University’s animal use protocols involving dogs at http://www.poetwill.org/osu_dogs.htm.
226USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Investigative and Enforcement Services. Letter (and attachments) to Robert Perry. 23 Feb 2006.
227Id.
228Information obtained from this dealer’s USDA APHIS Class B Dealer License Renewal Applications for the years 2006-2008.
229Barber, Sally. “Not All Happily Ever After.” Cadillac News 2 Oct 2008. Cadillac News 17 Nov 2008. http://www.cadillacnews.com/articles/2007/10/04/news/news02.txt.
230Dog ID/USDA Number E6962.
231Information obtained from this dealer’s USDA APHIS Class B Dealer License Renewal Applications for the years 2006-2008.
232Triple C Farms is no longer a licensed Class B dealer. See USDA APHIS, Animal Welfare, License and Registration List, Dealers, 9 Jan 2009. APHIS. 7 Feb 2009. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/efoia/downloads/reports/B_cert_holders.txt.
233USDA. APHIS Inspection Report. 30 Nov 2005.
234USDA. APHIS Inspection Report. 20 May 2005.
235Information obtained from this dealer’s USDA APHIS Class B Dealer License Renewal Applications for the years 2006-2008.
236The Animal Welfare Act defines “animal” to include both live or dead dogs and cats. 7 U.S.C. § 2132.
237Porter County Animal Shelter in Valparaiso, Indiana is an example of a shelter that sells euthanized cats to NASCO, a biological supply company, and who has contracted with them for 10-15 years. The Aristotle Corporation, doing business as NASCO, purchases cats for $3 each, and requires that the animals be in good health and not injured. According to the shelter director, they do not look at a cat and think of the profit they can derive from euthanizing the animal and selling it to NASCO. Lavalley, Amy. “Animal Shelter Providing Kitty Carcasses to Science.” Post-Tribune 28 April 2008. 9 May 2008. .
238ENasco. “Triple-injected pregnant cat specimen. 30 Dec. 2008. http://www.enasco.com/product/LS03598MH.
239Grambling State University, New Mexico State University, Texas A & M College Station, and University of Louisiana-Monroe are examples of schools purchasing cat cadavers from NASCO as recently as 2007.
240Biological supply companies also sell some alternatives to dissection and related animal use, such as CD-ROMs, models, videos, and charts. While their income can be derived from supplies such as microscopes, curricula, and technology, they also sell various live and dead species of animals for research and education.
241Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. “Animal Care: A New Era in Animal Welfare.” Feb 2002. Aphis.Usda.gov. 20 Dec 2008. http://search.usda.gov/search?q=cache:YMJkXoivs3MJ:www.aphis.usda.gov/publications/animal_welfare/content/printable_version/fs_awnewera.pdf+Class+B&access=p&output=xml_no_dtd&ie=UTF-8&client=default_frontend&site=APHIS_MAIN&proxystylesheet=default_frontend&oe=UTF-8.
242Austin, April. “A second Look at the Biology Lab.” The Christian Science Monitor 8 Jun 2004.
243Animalearn Survey of College and University Biology Departments. Apr 2008.
244Purchased 304 cat cadavers in 2006 from NASCO and Sargeant’s Wholesale Biological.
245Purchased 27 cat cadavers from Carolina Biological Supply and NASCO in 2005; 40 cat cadavers from Carolina Biological Supply and Fisher Scientific Co. in 2006; and 59 cat cadavers from Carolina Biological Supply and Fisher Scientific in 2007.
246Purchased cat cadavers from Sargeant’s, as well as from The Bio Corporation, averaging 70 cats per year.
247Purchased 34 cat cadavers from Fisher Scientific Co. and Carolina Biological Supply in 2005, and 35 cat cadavers from Fisher Scientific Co. and Carolina Biological Supply in 2006.
248Purchases 70 cat cadavers per year from Delta Biologicals.
249Purchased 84 cat cadavers in 2005, 39 cat cadavers in 2006, and 45 cat cadavers in 2007 from Ward’s Natural Science and At Home Science.
250Purchased 4 cat cadavers from VWR International Inc. in 2006, and 8 cat cadavers from Fisher Scientific in 2007.
251Purchased 37 cat cadavers in 2005, 40 cat cadavers in 2006, and 59 cat cadavers in 2007 from Fisher Scientific Co., Carolina Biological Supply, and NASCO.
252Purchased 16 cat cadavers in 2005, 16 cats cadavers in 2006, and 16 cat cadavers in 2007 from Carolina Biological Supply.
253Purchased 20 cat cadavers in 2005, and 10 cat cadavers in 2006 from Fisher Scientific Co., and Ward’s Natural Science.
254Purchased 105 cat cadavers in 2006 and 178 in 2007 from The Bio Corporation.
255Acquired 546 cats and 546 dogs from Carolina Biological Supply, as well as from several animal shelters in 2005.
256Purchased 31 cat cadavers in 2007 from Carolina Biological Supply and NASCO.
257Purchased 50 cat cadavers in 2005, and 55 cat cadavers in 2006 from NASCO.
258Purchased 7 cat cadavers in 2007 from NASCO.
259Branco, Shellie. “Animal Cruelty, Bribery Charged.” The Bakersfield Californian 1 Jul 2007. Bakersfield.com. 6 Aug 2008. http://www.bakersfield.com/hourly_news/story/178792.html.
260Id.
261Wilkison, Brett. “Ex-shelter Manager found Guilty.” Visalia Times Delta 25 Sep 2008. 26 Sep 2008. http://www.visaliatimesdelta.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=2008809250314.
262Branco, Shellie. “Animal Cruelty, Bribery Charged.” The Bakersfield Californian 1 Jul 2007. Bakersfield.com. 6 Aug 2008. http://www.bakersfield.com/hourly_news/stor/178792.html.
263Oklahoma City Journal of Council Proceedings Regular City Minutes. Oklahoma City 27 Mar 2007. Oklahoma City 10 Aug 2008. http://www.okc.gov/council/council_library/Minutes/070327.html.
264Oklahoma City Journal of Council Proceedings Regular City Minutes. Oklahoma City 21 Jan 2004 Oklahoma City 15 Aug 2008. http://www.okc.gov/council/council_library/minutes/040121.htm.
265March 2007 to March 2008.
266Estus. J. “Animal Advocate Criticizes Sale of Carcasses.” The Oklahoman 28 Mar 2007.
267April 21, 2003 to April 20, 2004. San Antonio City Council Meeting. Ordinance 30. 17 Apr 2003. http://epay.sanantonio.gov. 19 Feb 2009. http://epay.sanantonio.gov/archivedagendas/04-17-03.asp.
268Under 12 lbs. San Antonio City Council Meeting. Ordinance 30. 17 Apr 2003. http://epay.sanantonio.gov. 19 Feb 2009. http://epay.sanantonio.gov/archivedagendas/04-17-03.asp.
269Over 12 lbs. San Antonio City Council Meeting. Ordinance 30. 17 Apr 2003. http://epay.sanantonio.gov. 19 Feb 2009. http://epay.sanantonio.gov/archivedagendas/04-17-03.asp.
270Ben Buys Approved Supplier List. University of Pennsylvania. 8 Mar 2009. University of Pennsylvania. 10 Aug 2008. http://www.upenn.edu/purchasing/vendors/s_vendor.htm.
271Michigan State University Purchasing. Michigan State University. 2008. Michigan State University. 1 Aug 2008. http://purchasing.msu.edu/MBE_commodity.asp?SuppIn=040.
272Texas A&M Agency Spending Fiscal Year 2006. Texas A&M University. 20 Jul 2008. Texas A&M University. 19 Mar 2009. http://www.window.state.tx.us/procurement/hub/hub_report/fy6/agydet/711_agy_det_web.txt.
273Texas A&M University and California State University-Bakersfield IACUC Records.
274AUP #A2007-10048.
275Ranaco. Personal communication. 6 Aug 2008.
276Sargent-Welch. Personal communication. 6 Aug 2008.
277Espindola, Gerardo Aguirre. School of Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnia of Brock University Autonoma de Puebla. As stated in “Alarming Overpopulation of Dogs and Cats.”.7 Dec 2006. Brock University Autonoma de Puebla. 12 Feb 2009. http://miniap.universia.net.mx/search/index.php?busqueda=gerardo+aguirre+espindola&SearchButton.x=0&SearchButton.y=0&SearchButton=Search&domains=universia.net.mx&sitesearch=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.universia.net.mx.
278Jose Pedro Cano Celada from The Mexican Association of Veterinary Medicine (AMMVE) stated that there is an average of 3 million stray dogs. As stated in “Alarming Overpopulation of Dogs and Cats.” 7 Dec 2006. Brock University Autonoma de Puebla. 12 Feb 2009. http://miniap.universia.net.mx/search/index.php?busqueda=gerardo+aguirre+espindola&SearchButton.x=0&SearchButton.y=0&SearchButton=Search&domains=universia.net.mx&sitesearch=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.universia.net.mx.
279Sofia Ponce Partida, VMD, Coordinacion, Programa para el Centro de Alternativas al uso de Animales en la Ensenanza. Email correspondence. 19 Aug 2008.
280APHIS, USDA. “Final Rule: Random Source Dogs and Cats.” Federal Register, Vol. 58.: 139. Jul 22, 1993, P. 39124 (Rule) 1/795 9 CFR Parts 1 and 2. http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/legislat/cat1.htm.
281Payne, Christy, VMD. “Why Help Animals in Mexico?” Compassion without Borders. 12 Feb 2009. Compassion without Borders. 19 Mar 2009. http://www.cwob.org/why.html.
28207-16-96 NORMA Oficial Mexicana NOM-033-ZOO-1995. “Humanitarian Sacrifice of Domestic and Wild Animals.”
283Bonello, D. “Spotlight on dog overpopulation and abuse in Mexico.” Los Angeles Times 1 December 2008. Los Angeles Times 9 Mar 2009. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/laplaza/2008/12/still-on-the-do.html.
284Sofia Ponce Partida, VMD, Coordinacion, Programa para el Centro de Alternativas al uso de Animales en la Ensenanza. Email correspondence. 19 Aug 2008.
285Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-0330ZOO-1995. “Humanitarian Sacrifice of Domesic and Wild Animals.”
286“Humane Euthanasia.” Compassion without Borders. 9 Mar 2009. http://www.cwob.org/euthanasia.html.
287“State will trade food for stray dogs.”. The Boston Globe 13 Aug 1999. Pg. A12.
288McGirk, Jan. “Dead Dogs Help to Feed the Poor.” The Independent 1999 Aug 21. Pg. 12.
289Id.
290Raul Tadeo Ortiz Berriel.
291Center for Animal Health (pound).
292In Los Mochis, Sinaloa, Mexico.
293Also, animals that were brought to the pound were suddenly unable to be located.
294“Seeking civil servant for illegal trade of cats.” Fuerza Informativa Azteca (television). 7 Mar 2003. Jalisco, Mexico. Translation provided by Sofia Ponce Partida. 18 Aug 2008.
295Castro, Jose Luis Jimenez. “The Center for Animal Health of Guadalajara keeps freezing cats.” Notisistema (Radio). 19 Feb 2004. Translation Provided by Sofia Ponce Partida. 18 Aug 2008.
296“Seeking civil servant for illegal trade of cats.” Fuerza Informativa Azteca (television). 7 Mar 2003. Jalisco, Mexico. Translation provided by Sofia Ponce Partida. 18 Aug 2008.
297In July 2008, there was an explosion inside the gas chamber at Iredell County Animal Services, which contained 10 dogs who were to be euthanized. Reports indicate that Iredell County Animal Services will not use the gas chamber until a vendor determines it is safe to use. “Gas Chamber Use Sparks Small Fire At Iredell County Animal Shelter.” WSOCTV. 22 Jul 2008. WSOCTV. 19 Aug 2008. http://www.wsoctv.com/news/16956249/detail.html.
298Preserved Material Department. Carolina Biological Supply Company. Minutes from Kerr County, TX. 23 Jul 2007. Kerr County. 19 Feb 2009. http://www.co.kerr.tx.us/commcrt/minutes/2001%20-%202010/2007/July/30399.txt.
299From start to finish. Mott, Maryann. “Animal Gas Chambers Draw Fire in U.S.” National Georgaphic News 11 Apr 2005. National Geographic News 9 Mar 2009. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/04/0411_050411_peteuthanasia.html.
300Saxon, Erik. “State Vote Allows Use Of Gas Chambers To Kill Unwanted Pets.” WSOC TV. 13 Feb 2008. WSOC TV. 19 Feb 2009. http://www.wsoctv.com/pets/15294043/detail.html.
301“Animal Gas Chambers Draw Fire in U.S.” National Georgaphic News 11 Apr 2005. National Geographic News 9 Mar 2009. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/04/0411_050411_peteuthanasia.html.
302“2007 Marks the End of Gas Chamber for Dogs and Cats in Virginia.” The Humane Society of the United States. 10 Aug 2007. HSUS. 9 Mar 2009. http://www.hsus.org/press_and_publications/press_releases/2007_marks_end_of_gas_chamber_081007.html.
303Examples are pregnant cats or dogs, or cats or dogs of a specific size.
304Class A dealer is defined by USDA as a person meeting the definition of dealer and “whose business involving animals consists only of animals that are bred and raised on the premises in a closed or stable colony and those animals acquired for the sole purpose of maintaining or enhancing the breeding colony.” 9 C.F.R. § 1.1.
305Marshall Bioresources. “Animals and Services: Services: Diagnostic Services.” Undated. Marshallbio.com. 12 Oct 2008 http://www.marshallbio.com/.
306Between 2005-2007, 50 dogs were purchased from Marshall Farms.
307In 2005, 20 mixed breed dogs, many of whom were puppies, were purchased from Marshall Bioresources.
308Between Sep 2005 and Jun 2007, 51 dogs were bought from Marshall Farms.
309Between 2005-2007, 41 dogs were bought from Marshall Farms.
310In 2005, 24 dogs were purchased from Marshall.
311Between 2006-2007, 23 beagle puppies were purchased from Marshall Farms.
312Oklahoma State does not keep records of how animals are used (i.e., research vs. education) so it is unclear if the beagles are used for education.
313USDA. APHIS Inspection Report. 30 Mar 2005.
314USDA. APHIS Inspection Report. 14 Feb 2006.
315USDA. APHIS Inspection Report. 15 Mar 2006.
316USDA. APHIS Inspection Report. 21 Sep 2006.
317USDA. APHIS Inspection Report. 17 Oct 2007.
318On each of its three USDA APHIS License Renewal Applications, Marshall Farms Group Ltd. reported its total gross amount derived from animal sales as “Over $200,002.” According to AWA regulations (9 C.F.R. § 2.6) the fee to renew a Class A or B dealer license is based upon half of a company or individual’s sales, and the maximum fee possible is for those whose 50 percent profits are greater than $100,000 (i.e., grossing over $200,000). Therefore, Marshall Farms Group Ltd’s profits are likely significantly higher.
319United States Department of Agriculture. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Animal Welfare Electronic Freedom of Information Frequent Requests: License and Registration List: Breeders. Updated 22 Sep 2008. APHIS. 15 Oct. 2008. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/efoia/downloads/reports/A_cert_holders.pdf.
320United States Department of Agriculture. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Animal Welfare Electronic Freedom of Information Frequent Requests: License and Registration List: Dealers. Updated 22 September 2008. APHIS. 15 Oct. 2008. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/efoia/downloads/reports/B_cert_holders.pdf.
321The breakdown by year is as follows: 2004: 134 dogs; 2005: 70 dogs; and 2006: 152 dogs.
322Covance Research Products sold 166 beagles and donated 46 beagles to MSU in 2005. In 2006, MSU purchased 72 beagles from Covance Research Products, and Covance Research Products donated 108 beagles to MSU.
323Between 2005 and 2007, Covance Research Products sold 25 beagles and donated 70 beagles to University of Wisconsin, Madison for use in education at its medical and veterinary schools.
324University of Cincinnati in Ohio bought 47 mixed breed and hound dogs from Covance Research Products between 2004 and 2006.
325In 2006, three beagles were bought from Covance Research Products.
326In 2005, six beagles were purchased from Covance Research Products.
327From Nov 2005 through Apr 2007, 144 dogs were bought from Covance Research Products.
328In 2006, 11 hound dogs were bought from Covance Research Products.
329Covance order packing list, #62429. 8 Jul 2007.
330USDA. APHIS Inspection Report. 3 Aug 2006.
331AWA regulations, 9 C.F.R. § 3.3(a), specify that the ambient temperature in dogs’ sheltered housing facilities should not rise above 85 degrees Fahrenheit for longer than four consecutive hours.
332According to USDA, APHIS Inspection Reports, Covance Laboratories Inc. was cited by APHIS Inspectors relating to damaged dog cages (4 May 2006), damaged dog and primate rooms (1 Sep 2004), and inadequate searches for alternatives to minimize pain and distress and justification of animal numbers (12 Apr 2006 and 6 Dec 2006).
333Pfister, Bonnie. “Covance Pays Fine to Conclude USDA Investigation.” The Associated Press 31 Mar 2006.
334Information obtained from this dealer’s USDA APHIS Class A Dealer License Renewal Applications for the years 2006-2008.
335Between 2006-2007, 31 beagle puppies were purchased from Ridglan Farms.
336In 2005, four beagles were bought from Ridglan Farms.
337In 2006, 26 beagles were purchased from Ridglan Farms.
338In 2004, eight dogs were bought from Ridglan Farms.
339In 2005, 39 live cats were bought from Harlan.
340In 2005 and 2006, 10 cats were bought from Harlan.
341In 2006, 10 kittens aged 10-12 weeks old were bought from Harlan.
342Between 2005 and 2007, it bought 51 female kittens—most of whom were only two to three months old.
343In 2005, 2 dogs were purchased from Harlan.
344Between 2005 and 2007, 188 cats were bought from Harlan.
345Between 2005 and 2007, two cats were bought from Harlan.
346Meunier, LaVonne, D. “Selection, Acclimation, Training, and Preparation of Dogs for the Research Setting.” ILAR Journal 47.4(2006):326-347.
347Swallow, Jeremy, et al. “Guidance on the transport of laboratory animals: Report of the Transport Working Group established by the Laboratory Animal Science Association (LASA).” Laboratory Animals 39(2005):1-39.
348 Information obtained from this dealer’s USDA APHIS Class A Dealer License Renewal Applications for the years 2006-2008.
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